Gymnosperms: cycads, ginkgo, conifers, Gnetales
Viridiophytes: green plants
Embryophytes: Land plants
Phylogenetic relationships among the five major clades of extant seeds plants are still unclear. Morphological studies have traditionally placed the Gnetales as sister to the flowering plants based upon flower-like reproductive structure and double fertilization. However recent phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data suggest the Gymnosperms form a monophyetic group comprised of Ginkgo, cycads, conifers and Gnetales. The Gnetales emerge as sister to the conifers or in some cases are even nested within the conifers. They are clearly a small and relictual group of seed plants with an extensive fossil record.
to New Zealand.
Link to the Ngā Tipu o Aotearoa Database
Bowe, L. M.; Coat, G.; dePamphilis, C. W. 2000. Phylogeny of seed plants based on three genomic compartments: extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales closest relatives are conifers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 4092-4097.
Chaw, S-M.; Parkinson, C. L.; Cheng, Y.; Vincent, T. M.; Palmer, J. D. 2000: Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 4086-4091.
Rydin, C., Källersjö, M., Friist, E. M. 2002: Seed plant relationships and the systematic position of Gnetales based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA: conflicting data, rooting problems, and the monophyly of conifers. International Journal of Plant Science 163: 197-214.
For further information consult these links
Gymnosperm Tree of Life
Last updated: 23-Jul-2013
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