Monilophytes: psilotum, ophioglossum, marattia, equisteum, polypods

Viridiophytes: green plants -> Embryophytes: Land plants

The ferns (including Equisetum and Psilotum) form a monophyletic group comprised of about 9000 species. They are spore-bearing plants with lateral roots originating in the endodermis, mesarch protoxylem in the shoots, plasmodial tapetum and sperm cells with 30-1000 flagellae.

Indigenous or exotic to New Zealand.

NZ Flora Web Site Link to the Ngā Tipu o Aotearoa Database

Brownsey, P. J., Smith-Dodsworth, J. C. 2000. New Zealand Ferns and allied plants. revised edition. David Bateman, Auckland.
Hasebe, M.; Omori, T.; Nakazawa, M.; Sano, T.; Kata, M.; Iwatsuki, K. 1994: RbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 91: 5730-5734.
Hasebe, M.; Wolf, P. G.; Pryer, K. M.; Ueda, K.; Ito, M.; Sano,T. Gastony, G. J.; Yokoyama, J.; Manhart, J. R.; Murakami, N.; Crane, E. H.; Haufler, C. H.; Hauk, W. D. 1995: Fern phylogeny based on rbcL sequences. American Fern Journal 85: 134-181.
Little, D. P.; Barrington, D. S. 2003: Major evolutionary events in the origin and diversification of the fern genus Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 508-514.
Pryer,K.M. 2003///: rbcL phylogeny of the fern genus Trichomanes (Hymenophyllaceae), with special reference to neotropical taxa. 164: 753-761.
Pryor, K. M.; Schneider, H.; Smith, A. R.; Cranfill, R.; Wolf, P. G.; Hunt, J. S.; Sipes, S. D. 2001: Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to the seed plants. Nature 409: 618-622.
Schneider, H.; Schuettpetz, E.; Pryer, K. M.; Cranfill, R.; Magallón, S.; Lupia, R. 2004: Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 553–557.
Schuettpelz E., Pryer, K. M. 2007. Fern phylogeny inferred from 400 leptosporangiate species and three plastid genes. Taxon 56: 1037-1050.
Smith, A. R., Pryer, K. M. Schuettpetz, E., Korall, P., Schneider, H., Wolf, P. G. 2006. A classification of extant ferns. Taxon 705-731.
Last updated: 05-Mar-2013