Phylogeny
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Angiosperms: flowering plants

Viridiophytes: green plants -> Embryophytes: Land plants

While systematists largely agree that the flowering plants form a clearly defined monophyletic group, the traditional split between monocots and dicots is not supported by recent analyses. Instead the dicots are paraphyletic with the monocots forming a well–supported lineage that is nested within the dicots. The eudicots form a second well–supported clade nested within the flowering plants. There is much controversy surrounding the earliest flowering plants. Most recent analyses suggest that either Amborella or Amborella plus Nymphaeales is sister to all other angiosperms.

Indigenous or exotic to New Zealand.

NZ Flora Web Site Link to the Ngā Tipu o Aotearoa Database

 
References
APG II. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APGII. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141: 399-436.
APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105-121.
Doyle JA, PK Endress 2000: Morphological phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms: comparison and combination with molecular data. International Journal of Plant Science 161(suppl):S121–S153.
Feild TS, NC Arens, JA Doyle, TE Dawson, MJ Donoghue 2004: Dark and disturbed: a new image of early angiosperm ecology. Paleobiology 30:82–107.
Goremykin VV, KI Hirsch-Ernst, S Wo¨ lfl, FH Hellwig 2003a: Analysis of the Amborella trichopoda plastid genome sequence suggests that Amborella is not a basal angiosperm. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20: 1499–1505.
Goremykin VV, KI Hirsch-Ernst, S Wo¨ lfl, FH Hellwig 2003b The plastid genome of the ‘‘basal’’ angiosperm Calycanthus fertilis: structural and phylogenetic analyses. Plant Syst Evol 242:119–135.
Goremykin VV, KI Hirsch-Ernst, S Wo¨ lfl, FH Hellwig 2004 The plastid genome of Nymphaea alba, whole genome analyses and the problem of identifying the most basal angiosperm. Mol Biol Evol 21:1445–1454.
Qiu Y-L; Dombrovska, O.; Lee; J.F.; Li, L.; Whitlock, B. A.; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F. Rest, J. S.; Davis, C. C. Borsch, T. Hiluk, K. W. Renner, S. S.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.; Zanis, M.; Cannone, J. J.; Gutell, R. R.; Powell, M.; Savolainen, V.; Chartrou., L. W.; Chase, M. W. 2005: Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Science 166: 815-842
Soltis DE, PS Soltis 2004 Amborella not a ‘‘basal angiosperm’’? not so fast. Am J Bot 91:997–1001.
Soltis DE, VA Albert, V Savolainen, K Hilu, Y-L Qiu, MW Chase, JS Farris, JD Palmer, PS Soltis 2004 Angiosperm relationships, genome-scale data, and ‘‘ending incongruence’’: a cautionary tale in phylogenetics. Trends Plant Sci 9:477–483.
Stefanović, S.; Rice, D. W.; Palmer,J. D. 2004: Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots. BMC Evolutionary Biology 4: 35.
Last updated: 06-Mar-2013